The word "Arithmetic" is from Greek "arithmos", meaning "number". Arithmetic is the most basic form of mathematics. It concerns counting and working with numbers and fractions based on the four operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division although the more advanced operations, such as manipulations of percentages, square root, exponentiation and logarithmic functions, are also a part of this subject. In one way or another, every equation, graph, and an enormous amount of other things can be broken down into these four basic operations. As people say, math is a language, and addition subtraction, multiplication, and division are its alphabet, along with the number line as well. Arithmetic is performed according to an order of operations. Historically, the researchers have found that the initial significance of arithmetic had been realized during the third century B.C.
The term "arithmetic" is also used to refer to elementary number theory. This includes the properties of integers related to primality, divisibility, and the solution of equations in integers, as well as modern research that is an outgrowth of this study. It’s in this context that one runs across the fundamental theorem of arithmetic and arithmetical functions. From a general perspective, arithmetic allows individuals to think, reflect, and reason out. Plato, who is one of the greatest philosophers of all time, believed that any person who has good arithmetic skills will also do very well in other knowledge-based competencies.
Arithmetic is used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple day–to–day counting to advanced science and business calculations. The modern science and its acivements has a great contribution from arithmetic.We cannot analyse light, electricity or a tiniest atom which uses mathematics which has its paternity in arithmetic only. Mathematics has its sound base in arithmetics and can be used as tool to critically examine and asses both physical and abstract things. Any thing can be quantified for its quality and special characteristics and then it can be compared, assessed or examined. Arithmetic is pervading - time, space, life and beyond life the entire universe.