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Animal Physiology

Knockout mouse Knockout mouse A knockout mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out," an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA. The loss of gene activity often causes changes in a mouse's phenotype, which includes appearance, behavior and other observable physical and biochemical characteristics. Mice are currently the most closely related laboratory animal species to humans for which the knockout technique can easily be applied. Mouse belongs to Phylum Chordata. In this chapter, different types of phyla (Annelida, Arthropoda, Amphibia and Chordata) are discussed in detail.

Learning Objectives

After completing the topic, the student will be able to:

  • Appreciate the importance of studying anatomy and physiology of animals in detail.
  • Discover how animal experimentation provided much of the foundation for human physiological knowledge.
  • Examine the complete morphology, anatomy and physiology of earthworm that belongs to Phylum Annelida.
  • Describe the complete morphology, anatomy and physiology of cockroach that belongs to Phylum Arthropoda.
  • Explore the complete morphology, anatomy and physiology of frog that belongs to Phylum Amphibia.
  • Examine the complete morphology, anatomy and physiology of rat that belongs to Phylum Chordata.
  • Analyze the homologous aspects of human physiology and animal physiology.
  • Identify why rats are extensively used for scientific research and for animal experimentation.
The wonderful world of animals The wonderful world of animals Animals inhabit almost every part of the biosphere. Animal physiology is the study of animal functions and bodily processes.
Animal Physiology

Animals inhabit almost every part of the biosphere. Animal physiology is the study of animal functions and bodily processes. The term anatomy refers to the science that deals with the form and structure of animals.

Physiology deals with the study of functions of the animal body or any of its parts. A thorough knowledge of the structure of an animal imparts a lot of information about the various functions it is capable of performing. This topic is intended to give an overview of both the anatomy and physiology of some animals (earthworm, cockroach, frog and rat).

Knowledge of physiology is obtained by accurately observing the activities of the organs, organ systems, tissues, and cells of living animals and plants. Experiments are usually conducted upon an organ or other part in order to determine how altered conditions affect its physiological activities. In addition, the activities of healthy organs are often compared with those of diseased ones. Much knowledge of human physiology has been obtained by studying animals. Many physiological processes (such as digestion, assimilation, and respiration) are essentially chemical and physical in nature which are very important for normal functioning of the body.

Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy, the study of form, and physiology, the study of function, are intrinsically tied and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.
Anatomy and physiology

Traditionally, the discipline of physiology views the body as a collection of interacting systems, each with its own combination of functions and purposes. Each body system contributes to the homeostasis(The term "Homeostasis" refers to the maintenance of overall inner resistance in the body.

Homeostasis stabilizes the body by regulating internal environment at the body surface) of other systems and of the entire organism. No system of the body works in isolation, and the well–being of the person depends upon the well–being of all the interacting body systems (digestive system, circulatory system, respiratory system, musculoskeleton system, nervous system, excretory system, endocrine system and reproductive system).

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