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Nutrition

Storing protein for growth Storing protein for growth Certain animals like the Adelie penguin from Antarctica molt or grow new feathers yearly. Their feathers are like puffy winter coats that help them sustain a constant body temperature. Before molting, a penguin greatly increases its muscle mass. The penguin then breaks down the extra muscle protein, which supplies the amino acids for growing new feathers. In this chapter, we will examine the nutritional requirements of animals.

Learning Objectives

After completing the topic, the student will be able to:

  • Define the term ″nutrition″ and list some of the common health problems that can be alleviated with good nutrition.
  • List the seven major classes of nutrients and analyze how they are useful for healthy growth and metabolism.
  • Define the terms minerals, vitamins and list different types of minerals essential for living organisms.
  • Compare and contrast vitamins with minerals.
  • Describe the relation between a person′s diet and the likely development of obesity and cardiovascular disease.
  • Examine some of the nutritional symbiotic adaptations of animals.
Nutrition Nutrition– Nourishment to the cell Nutrition (also called nourishment) is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with a healthy diet.
Nutrition

Nutrition is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the energy and molecules necessary to support life. Nutrition, is the nourishment (is the supply of materials – food ) required by organisms and cells to stay alive. Most of the common health problems such as scurvy, beriberi,osteoporosis, diabetes and cardiovascular disease can be prevented or alleviated with good nutrition.

Nutritional science investigates the metabolic and physiological responses of the body through the study of metabolism and metabolic pathways, the sequences of biochemical steps through which the many substances of living things change from one form to another.

Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three basic classes of molecules: amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids (often called fats). As these molecules are vital for life, metabolism focuses on making these molecules, in the construction of cells and tissues, or breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, in the digestion and use of food. Many important biochemicals can be joined together to make polymers such as DNA and proteins and these macromolecules are essential parts of all living organisms.

Proper nutrition for healthy life style Proper nutrition for healthy life style The consumption of whole plant foods provides a more favorable balance, of essential nutrients per Calorie, resulting in better management of cell growth, maintenance, and mitosis (cell division), as well as better regulation of appetite and blood sugar.
Proper nutrition for health

Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy (starch, glycogen) and structural components (cellulose in plants, chitin in animals). The basic carbohydrate units are called monosaccharides and include galactose, fructose and most importantly glucose.

Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by peptide bonds. Many proteins are the enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism and other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as the proteins that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape.

Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes and the cell cycle. We should take diet with the essential nutrients that helps the body to make these vital molecules of life on a sustained basis. The consumption of whole plant foods provides a more favorable balance, of essential nutrients per Calorie, resulting in better management of cell growth, maintenance, and mitosis (cell division), as well as better regulation of appetite and blood sugar.

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