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Reproduction and Development

First cloned mammal First cloned mammal Dolly (5th July 1996 – 14th February 2003) was a female domestic sheep, and the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer. She is the result of research conducted by Dr. Ian Wilmut at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland. Dolly the sheep, was produced as part of research into producing medicines in the milk. Let's learn more about animal reproduction and development.

Learning Objectives

After completing the topic, the student will be able to:

  • Define the term “reproduction” and analyze how this phenomenon helps to generate new individual organisms.
  • Explore the most important difference between the outcomes of asexual and sexual reproduction.
  • Define and distinguish the terms hermaphroditism and sequential hermaphroditism.
  • List the different modes of asexual reproduction seen in animals.
  • Define the term “fertilization” and quote the difference between internal and external fertilization.
  • Inspect the different cleavage patterns of embryo and systematize the developmental events of zygote.
  • Compare and contrast the terms morphogenesis, gastrulation and organogeneisis.
  • Predict what would happen if the embryo does not undergo division and differentiation.
  • Deduce the conceptual frame work that how a single–cell zygote transfigured into a newborn.
Cell division in E.coli Cell division in E.coli Dividing E. coli bacteria is an example for asexual reproduction.
Reproduction and Development

Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced.Methods of reproduction are broadly grouped into two main types: sexual and asexual. In asexual reproduction, an individual can reproduce without involvement with another individual of that species. The division of a bacterial cell into two daughter cells is an example of asexual reproduction.

Asexual reproduction is not, however, limited to single–celled organisms. Most plants have the ability to reproduce asexually. Sexual reproduction requires the involvement of two individuals, typically one of each sex. Normal human reproduction is a common example of sexual reproduction.

Asexual as well as sexual reproduction occurs in the animal kingdom. Asexual reproduction is the creation of new individuals whose genes all come from one parent without the fusion of egg and sperm and in most cases, asexual reproduction relies entirely on mitotic cell division.

Budding in yeast Budding in yeast Yeast cell undergo budding, a type of asexual reproduction.
Asexual Reproduction

Asexual reproduction is the process by which an organism creates a genetically similaror identical copy of itself without a contribution of genetic material from another individual. Bacteria divide asexually via binary fission; viruses take control of host cells to produce more viruses; Hydras and yeasts are able to reproduce by budding.

These organisms do not have different sexes and they are capable of "splitting" themselves into two or more individuals. Some ‘asexual’ species, like hydra and jellyfish, may also reproduce sexually.

For instance, most plants are capable of vegetative reproduction–reproduction without seeds or spores–but can also reproduce sexually. Likewise, bacteria may exchange genetic information by conjugation.Other ways of asexual reproduction include

  • Parthenogenesis
  • Fragmentation
  • Budding that involve only mitosis.
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