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Biochemical assays Biochemical assays − Advances in biochemistry are enabling researchers to tackle some of the most exciting questions in biology and medicine. Biochemistry is an intrinsically beautiful and fascinating body of knowledge. How do the senses work? What is the molecular basis for mental disorders such as Alzheimer disease and schizophrenia? How does the immune system distinguish between self and nonself? The answers to such questions, which once seemed remote, have been partly uncovered and are likely to be more thoroughly revealed in the near future with the different kinds of biochemical assays.

Learning Objectives

Introduction to Chemical Foundation of Biology

  • Discover and analyze the chemical context of life.
  • Summarize the biochemical changes that occur in living cells.
  • Deduce the series of chemical reactions that occur in Protein Synthesis and Photosynthesis.
  • Evaluate how advances in biochemistry are enabling researchers to tackle some of the most exciting questions in biology and medicine.
  • Analyze how clinical applications of biochemistry are concerned with analysis of bodily fluids.
  • Examine and co−relate the terms − biochemistry and human biology.
  • Apply the principles of biochemistry to various genetic engineering techniques.
  • Apply the principles of clinical biochemistry to real−world health problems.
Jelly Fish Jelly Fish Jellyfish use chemistry to emit light (bioluminescence ). Some species of jellyfish can produce light in their bodies, known as bioluminescence. This process is a chemical reaction that produces a blue colored light in most species notably Aequorea victoria. This is how the chemical process of producing bioluminescence works: There are two types of chemicals in the bodies of bioluminescent jellyfish − luciferin and luciferinase. When triggered, the chemical luciferin gets oxidized by the action of the chemical luciferinase . When these two react, the result of the reaction is a photoprotein. This photoprotein is the cause of the bluish glow that the bioluminescent jellyfish acquire.
What is Biochemistry?

Chemical biology or Biochemistry is born out of a desire to understand the molecular basis of life. Biochemistry aims to explain biological form and function in chemical terms and also termed as "Chemical basis of life". What are the molecules found in cells? How do their intrinsic properties equip them to perform all the complex processes found in cells? The aim of chemical foundation of Biology is to provide the fundamental ideas relating to the chemistry of life that can then be applied to more advanced aspects of chemical biology.

The reason we have to know some chemistry is because cells are sacs of chemicals. The fact that sweating cools the skin is a function of the strong forces of attraction between water molecules. Our body maintains our blood at one critical pH because of the bicarbonate buffering system. To prevent heart attacks, we must begin with an understanding about the structure of fatty acids. Mad cow disease is caused by a misfolded protein. Biochemistry affects every aspect of our lives. Here is a review of basic biochemistry.

Chemical biology/Biochemistry is the science concerned with chemical substances and processes that occur in plants, animals, and microorganisms. It involves the quantitative determination and structural analysis of the organic compounds that make up cells (proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids) and of those that play key roles in chemical reactions vital to life (e.g., nucleic acids, vitamins, and hormones). It is the study which deals with many complex and interrelated chemical changes.

protein synthesis Chemical reactions in protein synthesis The chemical reactions by which proteins and all their precursors are synthesized is a phenomenon named as Protein Synthesis. Protein biosynthesis is the process in which cells build or manufacture proteins. The term is sometimes used to refer only to protein translation but more often it refers to a multi − step process, beginning with amino acid synthesis and transcription of nuclear DNA into messenger RNA, which is then used as input for translation.
What are biochemical reactions?

Examples include

  • The chemical reactions by which proteins and all their precursors are synthesized.
  • Food is converted to energy (metabolism).
  • Hereditary characteristics are transmitted (heredity).
  • Energy is stored and released.
  • All biological chemical reactions are catalyzed (catalysis; enzyme).

Biochemistry straddles the biological and physical sciences and uses many techniques common in medicine and physiology as well as those of organic, analytical, and physical chemistry.

It is the study of the substances and chemical processes which occur in living organisms. It includes the identification and quantitative determination of the substances, studies of their structure, determining how they are synthesized and degraded in organisms, and elucidating their role in the operation of the organism. Some of them are discussed further.

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