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Monera & Protista

Fuel from Bacteria! Fuel from Bacteria! Biofuel Bacteria – Streptomyces is genetically modified to produce cellulase. This is the enzyme that breaks down cellulose (the primary structural material in plants). Bacteria that can produce cellulase, or similar enzymes, are able to ferment plant cellulose to produce ethanol for use as a fuel. Ethanol is added to petrol to improve vehicle performance and reduce air pollution. Fuels produced by biological means (biofuels) are renewable, unlike fossil fuels. In this topic, you will learn more about bacteria and other unicellular eukaryotes.

Learning Objectives

After completing the topic, the student will be able to:

  • Define prokaryotes and discuss why they are kept under Kingdom Monera.
  • Analyze how structural, functional, and genetic adaptations contribute to prokaryotic success.
  • Define and differentiate pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.
  • Apply the conceptual knowledge- how prokaryotes are useful in research and DNA technology.
  • Classify Kingdom Monera.
  • Define protists and analyze why they are kept under separate kingdom.
  • Classify Kingdom Protista.
  • List some of the species we see in Monera and Protista in everyday life.
E. coli bacteria E. coli bacteria Escherichia coli is a rod-shaped bacterium (bacillus). Bacteria are unicellular, prokaryotic organisms. E. coli is a normal component of the intestinal bacterial flora, but under certain conditions can cause gastroenteritis and urinary tract infections. In favorable conditions E. coli bacteria can divide every 20 or 30 minutes and so rapidly increase in number.
Kingdom Monera

In the last few decades, several taxonomic schemes have been used to describe life. One of the simplest forms of dividing life is prokaryotes and eukaryotes; that is, those organisms without nuclei went into one group and those with nuclei went into another, respectively. Another commonly used scheme, divided life into five kingdoms: Monera (prokaryotes), Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia.

Classification schemes strive to show the evolutionary relationships between groups, and in recent years it has become apparent that the evolutionary relationships of prokaryotes are quite complex. To begin with, Kingdom Monera refers to the microorganisms that are considered as the most ancient living creatures in the world. It includes the single celled organisms known as bacteria.

An in-depth study of the Monera kingdom will reveal that, this kingdom is divided into two different groups -Archaebacteria and Eubacteria ( Eubacteria is commonly called as bacteria) . The following sections provide some important characteristics that will help you understand the kingdom Monera better.

Pyroccocus furiosus archaea. Pyroccocus furiosus archaea Archaea are single-celled organisms that are similar to bacteria but have been found to have higher organism characteristics. This was discovered when sampling the DNA of bacteria. A new domain of Archaea was set up because of the differences found. The thin strands or filaments are flagella. Each organism has a group of flagella at one end of the cell that is used for locomotion. P. furiosus is a hyperthermophile and it is only found in very hot water. At temperatures below 70 degrees Celsius it will freeze and die. It is found in hot water vents under the sea that are subject to great pressure and oxygen depletion. This archaea uses sulfur for respiration instead of oxygen.
Examples of Kingdom Monera

The members of this kingdom are prokaryotes ( single-celled organisms that have no pre-defined nucleus or membrane-bound organelles). Most prokaryotes are microscopic. Their collective biological mass (biomass) is at least ten times that of all eukaryotes (Eukaryote is an organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes) . The number of prokaryotes in a single handful of fertile soil is greater than the number of people who have ever lived. What has enabled these tiny organisms to dominate the biosphere throughout their history? One reason for their success is a wealth of adaptations that enable various prokaryotes to inhabit diverse environments. Prokaryotes thrive almost everywhere, including places too acidic, too salty, too cold, or too hot for most other organisms.

The Monerans are too simple in their structure and, therefore, their morphological characters are of less value for classifying them. Their classification, therefore, uses functional characteristics, i.e., biochemical, physiological and ecological. All Monerans, or all bacteria, are prokaryotes. The bacteria are most simple and smallest of all cellular organisms (0.5 to 50μ), and may be studied under the high power of light microscope.

Thus , if we put together Monera is a kingdom of prokaryotes which includes organisms such as bacteria, cyanobacteria, mycoplasma etc. They are present almost everywhere. They have little difference in outer shape and form. These are unicellular organisms which have no specific mode of nutrition. They can be aerobic or anaerobic.

Cell wall is present and is made of peptidoglycan with mucin covering. They have naked DNA. No membrane bound organelles are present. Endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria are absent. They multiply by binary fission. The kingdom monera has been divided into two groups which are: Archaebacteria – the ancient type and Eubacteria – the true type. The true type is further divided into bacteria and cyanobacteria.

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