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Common Health Problems

Recombinant insulin Recombinant insulin – Saving millions of diabetic patients Millions of people with diabetes now take human insulin produced by bacteria or yeast (biosynthetic insulin) that is genetically compatible with their bodies, just like the perfect insulin produced naturally in your body, is called recombinant insulin. Animal insulin has saved millions of lives, but it has a problem: It causes allergic reactions in some users. Today, almost all people with diabetes who require insulin use a form of recombinant human insulin rather than animal insulin. Let′s learn some of the common health problems related to human body due to abnormal metabolism.

Learning Objectives

After completing the topic, the student will be able to:

  • Identify the basic difference between a disease and a disorder.
  • Analyze common health disorders and provide examples of how different diagnostic tools effectively help to reduce these health problems.
  • Define anemia and illustrate the causes, types , symptoms and treatment options for this disorder.
  • Understand the mechanism of treating anemia with recombinant erythropoietin.
  • Discuss some of the risk factors associated with hypertension and list some of the drugs that reduce blood pressure.
  • Explore how cholesterol levels in the blood drastically effects the health of an individual and illustrate some of the risk factors.
  • Define “Hypothermia”and discuss some of the rewarming programmes depending upon the patient′s condition.
  • Define the term “BMI” and discuss some of the risk factors, metabolic disorders and treatment options for obesity.
  • Define “diabetes” and distinguish between type I and type II diabetes.
  • Identify the causes of inflammation in Systemic lupus erythematosus and explore the recent research associated with it.
  • List different types of blood tests available for monitoring blood–glucose levels in diabetic patients.
Anemia Anemia Comparision of normal red blood cells (red) and anemic red blood cells (clear). The anaemic cells are no longer red as they have lost their hemoglobin and therefore their ability to carry iron. Anemia is a condition in which the blood has a reduced capacity to carry oxygen. This may be due to a reduced number of erythrocytes, or a low concentration of hemoglobin, the oxygen–carrying pigment, in the cells. There are many causes, but the most common is iron deficiency, as iron is essential for the formation of hemoglobin. Anemia causes pallor, tiredness and weakness. Treatment is aimed at the underlying cause.
Common Health Problems

Anemia is a condition that develops when your blood lacks enough healthy red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. Red blood cells are the main transporters of oxygen to organs and hence if red blood cells are deficient in hemoglobin your body doesn′t get enough oxygen.

The deficiency of oxygen can also be caused by decreased oxygen–binding ability of each hemoglobin molecule due to deformity or lack in numerical development. As hemoglobin found inside RBCs normally carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, anemia leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in organs. Symptoms of anemia like fatigue occur because organs aren′t getting enough oxygen. Since all human cells depend on oxygen for survival, varying degrees of anemia can have a wide range of clinical consequences.

Women and people with chronic diseases are at increased risk of anemia. Certain forms of anemia are hereditary and infants may be affected from the time of birth. Women in the childbearing years are particularly susceptible to a form of anemia called iron–deficiency anemia because of the blood loss from menstruation and the increased blood supply demands during pregnancy. Elderly people also may have a greater risk of developing anemia because of poor diet and other medical conditions.

Anemia diminishes the capability of affected individuals to perform physical activities as a result of one′s muscles being forced to depend on anaerobic metabolism. The lack of iron associated with anemia can cause many complications, including hypoxemia, brittle or rigid fingernails, cold intolerance, and possible behavioral disturbances in children. Hypoxemia resulting from anemia can worsen the cardio–pulmonary status of patients with pre–existing chronic pulmonary disease. Cold intolerance occurs in one in five patients with iron deficiency anemia, and becomes visible through numbness and tingling.

Blood loss Blood loss – One of the causes for anemia Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging , is the loss of blood or blood escape from the circulatory system.
Underlying causes of anemia

There are several kinds of anemia, produced by a variety of underlying causes. The three main classes of anemia include excessive blood loss/bleeding (acutely such as a hemorrhage or chronically through low–volume loss), excessive blood cell destruction (hemolysis) or deficient red blood cell production. Iron–deficiency anemia, the most common type, is very treatable with diet changes and iron supplements.All are very different in their causes and treatments.

Bleeding can occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body, or externally, either through a natural opening such as the mouth, nose, ear, vagina or anus, or through a break in the skin. Desanguination is a massive blood loss, and the complete loss of blood is referred to as exsanguination. Typically, a healthy person can endure a loss of 10–15% of the total blood volume without serious medical difficulties, and blood donation typically takes 8–10% of the donor′s blood volume.

Blood Loss

Red blood cells can be lost through bleeding, which can occur slowly over a long period of time, and can often go undetected. This kind of chronic bleeding commonly results from Gastrointestinal conditions such as ulcers, hemorrhoids, gastritis and cancer. Use of nonsteroidal anti–inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as aspirin, menstruation and childbirth in women, especially if menstrual bleeding is excessive and if there are multiple pregnancies.

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