Cell differentiation occurs in multicellular organisms
Differentiation is a common process in adults as well: adult stem cells divide and create fully differentiated daughter cells during tissue repair and during normal cell turnover. Differentiation dramatically changes a cell′s size, shape, membrane potential, metabolic activity, and responsiveness to signals.
Cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. Differentiation occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism as the organism changes from a simple zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types and finally into a complex organism.
A cell that is able to differentiate into all cell types of the adult organism is known as pluripotent. Such cells are called embryonic stem cells in animals and meristematic cells in higher plants. A cell that is able to differentiate into all cell types, including the placental tissue, is known as totipotent.
Totipotency is the ability of a single cell to divide and produce all the differentiated cells in an organism, including extraembryonic tissues. Totipotent cells include spores and zygotes. In some organisms, cells can dedifferentiate and regain totipotency.
For example, a plant cutting
or callus can be used to grow an entire plant. Pluripotency (meaning having power) refers to a stem cell that has the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers: endoderm (interior stomach lining, gastrointestinal tract, the lungs), mesoderm (muscle, bone, blood, urogenital), or ectoderm (epidermal tissues and nervous system).