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Alcohols, Phenols & Ethers

Red wine, the beverage with benefits Red wine, the beverage with benefits Wine is an alcoholic beverage contains about 10 % ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) by volume. Red wine is derived from the fermentation of dark colored grape varieties. The red color of wine is due to anthocyanin pigments present in skin of the grape. Scientists discovered that a limited intake of red wine has several health benefits. Red wine contains resveratrol, a powerful antioxidant compound which decreases the rate of ageing. Resveratrol also protects the heart and arteries against the effects of saturated fat on cardiovascular system. There are certain evidences for anticancer properties of red wine.

Learning Objectives

After completing the topic, the student will be able to:

  • Define, classify and name the alcohols, phenols and ethers.
  • Discuss the structure and physical properties of alcohols, phenols and ethers.
  • Describe the significance, preparation methods, physical, chemical properties and uses of important alcohols, methanol and ethanol.
  • Explain the acidic behavior of phenol.
  • Give effect of substituents on acidity of phenol.
  • Describe the importance, structure, physical properties, preparation methods, chemical reactions and uses of ethers.
  • Compare the properties of alcohols and phenols.
  • Compare the properties of isomeric alcohols and ethers.
Wine is an alcohol Wine is an alcohol It is made out of fermented grapes.
Alcohols

Alcohols have been known to humans for thousands of years. Ethanol is the most well known alcohol and is found in alcoholic beverages. Alcohols are distinguished by the hydroxyl (‐OH) group attached to the hydrocarbon.
Eg: Methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol etc.,

  • Methanol, also called ‘wood alcohol’, is primarily used as a starting material for a variety of final products.
  • Ethanol is the most well known alcohol and is found in alcoholic beverages. It is also used as a starting material for acetic acid and as a solvent.
  • Ethylene glycol is the major constituent of antifreeze.
Alcohols Alcohols Alcohols fall into different classes depending on how the ‐OH group is positioned on the chain of carbon atoms. There are some chemical differences between the various types.
Naming the alcohols

The naming of the alcohols is relatively simple‐the name of the alkyl group containing the longest chain of carbon atoms is used, along with the suffix ‘‐ol’. Depending on the alcohol, a number may be used in front of the ‘‐ol’ to indicate which carbon atom the ‐OH group is attached to, as in the below figure. Side chains are also indicated in the usual way.

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