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Aldehydes and Ketones

Chanel N°5, the famous and precious perfume Chanel N°5, the famous and precious perfume Many aldehydes and ketones are particularly fragrant. A number of flowers owe their pleasant odor due to the presence of simple carbonyl compounds. Chanel N°5 is the first and famous perfume launched by Parisian couturier Gabrielle ‘coco’ Chanel. The chemical formula for the fragrance was compounded by Russian‐French chemist and perfumer Ernst Beaux. An instant sales success when it was born, Chanel N°5 remains the top in number of perfume sales to this day, with a bottle sold worldwide every 30 seconds. The major ingredients in Chanel N°5 are substituted undecanals. It is the first perfume in the floral‐aldehyde group and the first by the quantity of aldehydes in its composition.

Learning Objectives

After completing the topic, the student will be able to:

  • Define carbonyl compounds and state their general formulae.
  • Describe the structure of carbonyl functional group.
  • Explain the polar behavior of C=O double bond.
  • Distinguish aliphatic and aromatic cabonyl compounds.
  • Give the general preparation methods, properties and reactivity of aldehydes and ketones.
  • Compare the properties of aldehydes and ketones.
  • Discuss in detail about aldol reactions.
  • Recognize the significance of carbonyl compounds in day to day chemicals and natural compounds.
  • Discuss the uses of formaldehyde and acetone.
Carbonyl Compounds Odour of carbonyl compounds Aldehyde's and ketone's are the carbonyl compounds found widely in nature. The characteristic odour of Cherries and flavouring units of Vanillin are due to an aldehyde. Sting of Millipede is painful due to presence of another aldehyde. The odour of Garlic is produced by ketone's.
Carbonyl Compounds

The carbonyl compounds include the aldehydes and ketones. The carbonyl functional group (C = O) consists of a carbon atom double‐bonded to an oxygen atom. The carbonyl group is strongly polar (Cδ+ = O δ), and this has a marked effect on the physical and chemical properties of the carbonyl compounds.

Carbonyl compounds are very common in our everyday lives. The poisonous aldehyde‐based compound used in slug pellets and the ketones used as solvents for nail polish remover and for a wide variety of industrial processes have physical and chemical properties determined by the carbonyl group.

The characteristic odor of cherries is due to benzaldehyde. Aldehydes and ketones comprise a number of interesting everyday compounds. Aldehydes such as vanillin and cinnamaldehyde (odor of cinnamon) impart odors familiar to all of us. The odor of garlic is produced by ketones.

The horrible millipede bite produces its sting due to the presence of benzaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide in the fluid released. The drug cortisone is a ketone used to relieve individuals with rheumatism. Many cosmetics contain carbonyl compounds.

Examples for aldehydes and ketones Examples for aldehydes and ketones Aldehydes and ketones are a group of compounds containing the carbonyl group, C=O.
Aldehydes and ketones

Aldehydes and ketones are both homologous series containing the carbonyl group. Both organic families have the general formula CnH2nO.

The position of the C=O functional group in the carbon chain marks the difference between aldehydes and ketones.

The aldehydes have the carbonyl group at the end of the carbon chain and have the general structure RCHO. The carbonyl group of the ketones is not at the end of the carbon chain. Its position within the molecule varies making ketones to exhibit positional isomerism.

Formaldehyde is the simplest aldehyde. It was used as a preservative but is used less now because it is thought to be carcinogenic. It is the starting material for many reactions. Acetone is the simplest ketone. It is commonly used as an industrial solvent. Nail polish remover contains acetone.

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