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Nitrogen Derivatives

The merchant of death is dead The merchant of death is dead A French newspaper erroneously published Alfred's(a Swedish chemist, engineer,innovator and armaments manufacturer) obituary instead of his brother Ludvig's, and condemned Alfred for his invention of dynamite. It wrote that Dr. Alfred Nobel, who became rich by finding ways to kill more people faster than ever before, died yesterday. Provoked by the event and disappointed with how he felt he might be remembered, Nobel set aside a bulk of his estate to establish the Nobel Prizes to honor those who have done their best for humanity in the field of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and peace.
Dynamite is an explosive material based on nitroglycerin, using diatomaceous earth (AmE: kieselgur; BrE: kieselguhr), or another absorbent substance such as powdered shells, clay, sawdust, or wood pulp. Many organo nitrogen derivatives are powerful explosives. Dynamite (nitroglycerin), TNT (TriNitroToluene), RDX (Research Department Explosive, cyclonite or cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine) etc., are included in this group which are highly sensitive and explosive in nature.

Learning Objectives

After completing the topic, the student will be able to:

  • List the nitrogen containing compounds of organic molecules.
  • Define and classify amines based on carbon that is attached to amine group.
  • Recognize the biological significance of amines.
  • Describe the structural features of amines.
  • Discuss in detail about biological occurrence of amines.
  • Give the nomenclature of cyanides and isocyanides.
  • Compare the structural features of cyanides and isocyanides.
  • Give the nomenclature of cyanates and isocyanates.
  • Compare the structural features of cyanates and isocyanates.
  • Compare the structural features of nitro and nitrite functional group.
  • Give the preparation methods of aromatic nitro compounds.
  • Define quaternary ammonium salts and give their significance.
Columbian poison dart frogs Columbian poison dart frogs It is considered to be one of the most toxic animals on Earth, Columbian poison dart frogs have enough venom to kill ten grown humans.
Nitrogen Derivatives

Amines(R‐NH2)
Columbian poison dart frogs are tiny, beautiful, and deadly. They produce a poison called histrionicotoxin, which is an amine that causes paralysis. Death from histrionicotoxin results by suffocation through paralysis of the victim's respiratory muscles. Curare, the Amazonian arrow poison that is a mixture of compounds, from a woody wine, contains another paralytic neurotoxin, called d‐tubocurarine. Histrionicotoxin and d‐tubocurarine both block the action of acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter.

Adrenaline, the hormone responsible for our “fight‐or‐flight” responses in certain situations. The amines can be regarded as compounds based on ammonia, NH3, with one, two or three of the hydrogen atoms substituted by an alkyl or aryl group, R.

Primary amines Primary amines In primary amines, only one of the hydrogen atoms in the ammonia molecule has been replaced. That means that the formula of the primary amine will be RNH2 where "R" is an alkyl group.
Classification of amines

Amines are classified into aliphatic amines and aromatic amines.

Aliphatic amines:
Aliphatic amines are further classified into primary amines, secondary amines, tertiary amines and cyclic amines.

Primary amines:
Primary amines arise when one of three hydrogen atoms in ammonia is replaced by an alkyl i.e., R‐NH2.

Example:
Methylamine Isopropyl amine or (2‐propanamine)
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